132 PART I Strategy and the Nonmarket Environment
The Rcsinforest Action Network
HAPPENED TO RUN was founded in 1985 while using mission of prot
ecting tropical rainforests and the individual rights of
people surviving in them. WENT used equipment such as
resident protests, press, nonviolent civil disobedie
nce, and magazines to bring consciousness to the
problems and pressure governments, organizations, and
providers. RAN experienced about two dozen
personnel, all in the United States, organized in
three departments: operations, expansion
(fundraising), and campaigns. LEAPED had a a lot of the time
media specialist who interacted with the news
media and took part in campaign planning.
In the campaigns division, RAN commonly
had a advertising campaign manager for every single campaign and
used a great organizing staff of about five to support
whichever campaign was active during the time.
In the mid-1990s RAN transformed its focus from
community policy towards the private sector with the objective of
changing the practices of companies with environm
entally destructive techniques. RAN executive direct
or perhaps Michael Brune said, " Companies were more
responsive to public view than certain legislatures
were. We believed we could generate more democracy in the
industry than in the us government. вЂќ
RAN's Global Financial Campaign
Choosing a Target
At the end of 1999 RAN was concluding a successful 2-yr
campaign (led by Brune) targeting Residence Depot,
which in turn had agreed to end simply by 2003 someone buy of real wood
from decreasing in numbers forests. Intended for the Global Financing
Campaign, HAPPENED TO RUN planned to use a model similar to
the one utilized for Home DepotвЂ”target a large,
brand-oriented, U. H. -based multinational company
that had a good retail occurrence, was a head in its
industry, and had the role in facilitating the
destruction of old expansion forests and supporting
extractive industries. Mainly because RAN was a small
business with the aim of switching the procedures of
entire sectors, not only individual businesses, it depended
on the ripple effect of concentrating on a market innovator.
One firm stood out as the best targetвЂ”
Citigroup, the planet's largest bank. Citigroup was
the leading global, emerging market project financing
bank, and developing region project fund bank.
Citigroup also had a key part in a number of specific
projects that alarmed HAPPENED TO RUN, such as the Camisea
pipeline in Peru (Citigroup was the financial advisor
for the project yet did not immediately fund it) and the
Chad-Cameroon pipeline under construction simply by
ExxonMobil Quarter, and a consortium of central
Photography equipment oil companies. 2 In researching Citigroup's
involvement, WENT relied in data by Dealogic's
ProjectWare, a repository of project finance bargains.
In 2k Citigroup got net income of $13. 5 billion
upon revenues of $111. almost 8 billion and had customers
in over 75 countries and territories. Citigroup's
activities included global buyer banking, global
corporate and investment financial, global expense
management and private banking, and investment
actions. Citigroup's global consumer group offered
financial, lending, expense services, and credit
greeting cards to clients in above 50 countries and tern-
tories. A global consumer group reported core
net income of $5. three or more billion about $30. some billion of revenues
Citigroup had a open public image and a brand to
protect (in particular, their large buyer banking
procedure and visa or mastercard business), which usually made it
a nice-looking target. Ilyse Hogue, RAN's campaign
director for the Global Finance Advertising campaign, said:
Citigroup had put $100 million into its
manufacturer image, recently on its " Live RichlyвЂќ
marketing campaign, which was predicated on
the notion that " there is even more to life than
money. вЂќ We saw a company that was investing a
whole lot in making the general public believe that they opera
ted in line with conirnon social values. Part of
Citi's vulnerability was the juxtaposition of what
that articulated towards the public using what we observed on
the land from Citi's finance activities.
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